Before Starting HTML Lets know some basic concepts related to HTML
The internet is a new communication technology that influences us on large scale. The inter- net also called as the Net, is the world’s largest network. It is not a single network but global interconnected network of networks providing free exchange of information. We can share data, ideas, files, without any discretion of age and country. Internet is also a source of software. We can download software within a few minutes.
Advanced Research Project Administration Net (ARPA Net) is the ancestor of the internet. The project was an experience in reliable networking and to link defense and military research contractors in 1969. Later when Tim Berners Lee has developed www in 1990, then everyone can be able to use internet since 1992. From 1994, Nepal is also connected within a internet.
2. Word Wild Web (WWW):-
World Wide Web, which is a part of the net, is a collection of web pages. It contains information that can be a combination of text, pictures and hyperlinks. In another it is a web server.
Web page is a resource of information that suitable for World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format and may provide naviga- tion to other through/ via hyperlink. It is a document, connected to the World Wide Web and viewable by anyone connected to the internet who has a web browser is known as web page.
4. Web Site:-
Web site is a very common terminology in WWW. A site refers to a particular location on the web and the collection of web is known as web site.
5. URL (Uniform Resource Locator):-
In short URL is a address of website. In another word URL is a global address of document and other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address is called a protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use. The second part is called a resources name and it specifies the IP address or do- main name where the resources are located. The protocol identifier and resource name are separated by colon and two backward slashes.
6. Web Browser:-
The software that allows user to navigate the web and view HTML encoded document is known as web browser. For example Internet Explorer, Opera, Firefox, Google Chrome etc.
A set of rules and convention (principle) for sending information over a network is called protocol.
8. HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol):-
Http is a standard set of rules for processing hypertext links, exchanging files (like text, graphic, im- ages, sound, video and multimedia) on the World Wide Web. It is used to transfer hypertext request and in- formation between server and clients through web browser.
Work of HTTP
- To create connection between server and client.
- To send request
- To receive request/Reply
- To terminate/ close connection
Meaning and Definition of HTML
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), in computer science, the standard text formatting language for documents on the World Wide Web since 1989. HTML documents are text files that contain two parts: content that can be seen on a computer screen and markup or tags (encoded information) that is generally hidden from the user.
HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes. The correct structure for an HTML document starts with <HTML><HEAD> (enter here what document is about & scripting language) <BODY> and ends with </BODY></HTML>. All the information you’d like to include in your Web page fits in between the <BODY> and </BODY> tags. There are hundreds of other tags used to format and layout the information in a Web page. Tags are also used to specify hypertext links. These allow Web developers to direct users to other Web pages with only a click of the mouse on either an image or word(s).
How to create HTML Files:-
- Click on Start Menu and click on “Run” Option.
- Type “Notepad” in the text box of the run dialog box and click on ok
- Then save the file with extension “.html”(extension must be defined)
- At last click on “save” button.
How to open HTML Files:-
Just double Click on the html file
How to Edit HTML Files:-
- Open html file.
- Then click on “View” menu, click on “Source” option.
- Edit your document in notepad application.
How to define HTML tags in notepad:-
<html> <head> <title> ---Write title of the webpage here.---- </title> ----Enter here what document is about & scripting language.---- </head> <body> -All the information you'd like to include in your Web write here.--- </body> </html>
TAGS THAT ARE USED IN HTML
It identified beginning and end of the HTML document.
It is used to define head of the HTML document.
Use this tag to define the title of the webpage.
The BODY element contains the document body. BODY is required in non-frames docu- ments. It means we say that almost 80% of HTML document written inside the body tag. BODY takes a number of attributes for specifying the background and colors of the document on visual browsers. These attributes are as follows.
Attribute of <Body> Tag
- BGCOLOR = color name or value ->Suggests a background color
- TEXT = color name or value -> Suggests a text color,
- BACKGROUND = “image path” -> Suggests a background image for the html document
- LINK=Color name or value ->Link color for document
- VLINK=Color name or value ->Visited link color for document
- ALINK=Color name or value ->Active link color for document
- BGPROPERTIES =Fixed ->Use if you want to not scroll the background image
- TOPMARGIN= size ->Size of top and bottom margins
- LEFTMARGIN= size ->Size of left and right margins
- ONLOAD=Script ->Loads the script when document is open
- ONUNLOAD=Script ->Loads the script when document is closed